Thursday, September 10, 2009

11 : SHRI VALLABHACHARYA AND HIS SUDHA ADVAITA :

Chap 11 : SHRI VALLABHACHARYA AND HIS SUDHA ADVAITA :
India is proud of its original religious thinkers. Due to their persistent efforts they have brought the code of religious thinking of vedic period back to this country. Their contributions as commentators on upanishads, Brahma Sutras and Gita have enlivened the then decaying social structure of life.
The credit goes to Adi Sankaracharya for reviving the interest in vedic literature. But it is Sri Vallabhacharya, the fourth in the line of Acharya Parampara, who had blazed the horizon with his scorching criticism of the drawbacks of previous systems of religious thinking and established a profound doctrine in Sudha-advaita or pure monism and has pesented a path of devotion, churning as it is the ocean of milk, which he called Pusti Bhakti. Only a versatile Pandit can deal such a complicated subject like Bhakti Marga. Because in the second canto of Srimad Bhagavatam the Path of Devotion is described as the very essence of all Sruties.
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Shri Vallabhacharya has kept Vrajadhipa Sri Krishna in his heart and expanded the theory that assists the devotee to realise the secrets of Bhakti. He assures that the Lord will not discard such devotee who will dedicate his everything in the seva of Shri Krishna.
Sri Vallabhacharya's "Tatvartha - Dipa - Nibhandha", at large, deals with the principles of Sudha-Advaita and at the same time advocates the value of Bhakti Marg. "Nibhandha" is an original work written in the form of verses - called Karikas - and is so concise and to the point that the author has to provide his own comments to elucidate and elaborate his theories, which is very rare thing to observe in Indian philosophical and religious works. The whole of Sastrardha Prakarana is composed in just hundred and four Karikas. But for his 'Prakasa' this work would have remained shrouded in ambiguity and uncertainty. Perhaps without his own comments and elaborations much of his thoughts on the doctrines might have been lost for ever.
However there are four more commentaries on the work. But they are more or less commentaries on the chief commentary of Sri Vallabhacharya, rather than a further attempt to add to the ingenuity of the original thinker. In a way "Nibhandha" is based on such profound knowledge that there remains nothing to add.



























The work under consideration is divided into three chapters called Prakaranas viz., Sastraartha Prakarana, Sarva Nirnaya and Bhagavataartha Prakarana. In the first Prakarana, Sri Vallabhacharya has attempted to elaborate his doctrine of Sudha Avaita based on the chief scriptures, which he quotes in profusion in support of his theories. He does admit that his theories contain nothing new that has not been mentioned in the scriptures. He adds that whoever attempts to deduce his theories outside the scope of the four scriptures - (on which he has relied upon for support of his theories as proof) - will be tress-passing on grounds of conjecture.
The primary sources of Pramana or proofs relied upon by Shri Vallabhacharya are : Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Brahma Sutras and Srimad Bhagavatam.
Vedas are considered to be the result of sounds emanated with the exileratons of the Supreme Spirit. As such they are considered to be Brahma Vakyas. On the battle field of Kurukshetra Sri Krishna has a long discourse with Partha where he has explained all that has been preached in Vedas.
Upanishads are the works of great sages who have expressed the revealations made by the Supreme Spirit therein. Even though as such they are the works of authority and unique in nature, Shri Vallabhacharya has repudiated them wherever they have deviated from Vedas or wherever any contradiction or doubt has arisen.
Brahma Sutras and Srimad Bhagavatam are the contributions made by the great sage, Veda Vyasa. It is stated that he has composed the latter work in the language of Samadhi, when the sage is engulfed in deep meditation. Whatever has been revealed to him by the Supreme Spirit has been transcribed and hence Srimad Bhagavatam is also treated as the teachings of the Supreme Being.
Vyasa Sutrani are considered to be canonised principles of the profound teachings of Sruties. All the four Acharyas of different systems of philosophy have contributed their own extensive commentaries on Brahma Sutras.
Till the advent of Shri Vallabhacharya, all the three previous Acharayas have greatly relied on the three scriptures only in tending their arguments in proof of their theories. They have given importance to


























Vedas, Upanishads and Brahma Sutras in their exposition of their doctrines, neglecting Srimad Bhagavata Puranam. Even amongst Vedas no prominence is given to "Poorvakanda" as it advocates "Karma" or ritualistic practices as a means of realising that Supreme Spirit. Great-reliance is made on "Uttarakanda" as it advocates knowledge as means of realisation of Brahman. Poorvakanda consists of Samhitas and Brahmanas and the subject matter is sacrifies uttarkanda consists of Aranyakas and Upanishads. Shri Vallabhacharya insists that in order to have a comprehensive knowledge of Brahman one has to study both the kandas or parts as a whole otherwise-the picture one may project out of such studies will be incomplete.
Poorvakanda, which exlusively refers to sacrificial rites reveals only a part of Brahman, while Uttarakanda is again partial because it is confined to the aspect of knowledge alone. But Bhagavata Purana describes in full the concept of Brahman, both the work aspect as well as knowledge aspect. Therefore Bhagavata Purana is considered as a complete exposition of Divinity. Vedas consider the existence of Supreme Spirit analytically. But Bhagavata Purana deals the subject synthetically.
Shri Vallabhacharya asserts that all the four proofs referred here in above are unanimous in their conclusions and express single minded meanings giving birth to authentic knowledge. Each of these four verbal proofs is helpful in clarifying the doubts and contradictions and controversies arising out of the understanding of the previous work.
Shri Vallabhacharya states that "Parama Tatva" or Supreme being is the pre-eminent person. HE is the extreme limit of the Universe. This very Supreme Being has incarnated in the form of Shri Krishna and is known as Poorna Purushottama. HE is capable of performing supernatural deeds and can convert the non-means into means. HE assumes different names, forms and shapes and thus sports in this world. This world rpresents HIM in myriad forms. This world is a vast field of sport for the Diving Being.
Shri Vallabhacharya has conclusively proved that Shri Krishna is the primordeal and all encompassing deity. There is an obligation on every person to offer dedicated service to HIM. One should not consider him as an ordinary person but should maintain an understanding of Divinity in HIM. Sri Krishna in HIS true aspect is none other than the Divinity.



























Sri Vallabhacharya treats Seva or service towards Divinity both as a means or Sadhana and also as an effect or Phala. He advises all to try to understand the Sastras through proper study and to offer Seva unto HIM with a concentration of mind, body and speech.
In Vedanta that 'Parama Tatva' or Supreme True Substance is known with an emblem as 'Brahman'. This Brahman is both the efficient cause and material cause of this visible Universe. HE is the all pervading soul and spirit of the Universe. HE is the essence from which all created objects are produced and into WHICH they will be absorbed in the end.
The Smruties have praised that same 'Parama Tatva' as Paramatman or the highest spirit or the most exalted soul.
Srimad Bhagavata Purana has depicted this very 'Parama Tatva' as Divine Being or Bhagavan.
The same Divine Being may appear in different forms to different people. These forms may appear inconsistent. But it becomes possible due to supernatural powers of the Divinity. It is asserted that the Divinity is an asylum of contradictory characteristics.
It is averred that the word Dhamna or religion is used to denote scriptual injuctions so that one may accomplish ritualistic practices. In acquiring the knowledge of Dhamna both Sruti (Vedas absorbed through revealations) and Smruti (Vedas drawn out of memory) are treated as utmost evidence.
But one should remember that where the question of the form of Divinity is concerned the above referred four verbal proofs only will be considered as authentic. This Divinity known as Sri Hari is the embodiment of knowledge. On one hand HE represents the mode of leading life (Vrutti Rupa), on the other hand HE stands as a form of subject matter (Visaya Rupa) and HE alone illuminates in the form of Supreme Being (Brahma Rupa).
Sri Vallabhacharya describes "Sayujya Mukti" as a form of liberation wherein a Jiva will enjoy all the cherished desires along with the chief form of Divinity. This Sayuja Mukti is also referred as "Nitya Lila Pravesha" or entering the eternal sports of Divinity which is attained only by the special Grace of Sri Krishna.



























The fruits (Phala) of service of Sri Krishna are said to be three fold viz., obtaining super natural capabilities, enjoyment of desires along with the Divinity and attainment of special body that will be helpful in the service of Divinity in places like Vaikuntha.
Further when Seva is rendered to Shri Krishna the emancipation one will receive will be without any attributes attached to it, referred as Nirguna. Similarly knowledge placed in Divine Being (Bhagavan) is also considered to be without any qualities. In the same manner a devotee with dedicated Seva towards Sri Krishna will convert himself into a Nirguna Bhakta.
It is asserted that the form of Divinity is conceived due to HIS having these two elemental qualities "Chit and Ananda". In the doctrines of Brahmavada this attribute called Ananda is understood to be the so called form of Divinity.
With the advent of Kali Yuga all claims and rights of the seekers of knowledge will come to an end. What a person can do is render Seva of Sri Krishna with utmost devotion. In Srimad Bhagavatam it is clearly ••tated that in Kali Yuga, by simply singing the praises of the Divinity, leferred as Hari Kirtan, a person can get detached from worldly interests and can attain ultimate Phala.
This Universe is the creation or Karya of the Supreme Being. It is a variation in form known as Bhagavad Rupa. This Universe has been established by HIS power called Maya. The small world of Jiva is referred as 'Samsara' and is the product of another power of the same Supreme Being known as Avidya.
Maya is nothing but the power of the Supreme Being known as "Sarva Bhavana Samarthya Rupa". It is a form of the capability to exist in all places and dwell everywhere. This power exists within the Divine Being.
Sri Vallabhacharya, writing about the origin of the Universe, has described it as what is known as "Ghatita Poorna Patra Bhadavat" meaning the transformation is like the shape of a full earthen vessel transformed from a lump of clay from the artistic hands of a potter - the clay being the material cause and the potter being the instrumental cause. In a similar way, the Supreme Being has moulded himself into Maya



























which has acted as a die and has taken the form of Universe. This has been described in Srimad Bhagavatam as a process of being able to take the forms of Sthula or gross and Sukshma of subtle.
Bruhadaranyaka Upanishad mentions that with a view to sporting the Supreme Spirit has manistested in the form of Universe. Sport here includes manifoldness and diversity. The name Upanishad adds that the sporting activity of the Supreme Spirit can be observed in the form of Universe, in assuming the form of individual souls and in the end in the form of Phala or effect.
Bruhadaranyka Upanishad further narrates the origin of the small world known as Samasara of Jiva as a result of spiritual ignorance (Avidya) and its annihilation by obtaining spiritual knowledge (vidya). Therefore this small samsara of jiva is treated as different from the universe. It is this small world of jiva which is represented as unreal or Asat.
But one has to understand that even in the state of annihilation of ignorance the Universe will continue to exist and it will not be terminated along with the small world of Jiva. This Universe will be terminated only when the Divine Being Sri Krishna will sportively withdraw the creation.
Spiritual ignorance is said to consists of five divisions. It is the creation of Maya. Jiva exists under the influence of this Avidya. The hold of Avidya are completely refuted when the spiritual ignorance will be dispelled. It is suggested that prayers offered to Divinity will act as a means to dispel ignorance.
A correct perception of the form of the Supreme Spirit can be had from Vedas alone. Vedas describe that Brahman is Nirguna and at the same time say HE possesses limitless qualities i.e. Saguna. This contradictory nature is a characteristic of Divinity and is known as 'Virudha Dharma Ashrayah'.
At the beginning of creation, by the very desire of the Divine Being, infmitismal particles of life substances, bearing the prominent attribute of Brahman called "Chidamsa" and at the same time devoid of the highest quality of Brahman known as "Anandamsa" have emerged from this Divine Being like myriads of sparklings that emerge from a ball of fire. In a similar way innumerable inert objects, known as "Jada", have come


























into existence, bearing that attribute of Brahman 6alled "Sadamsa".
This word "Amsa" is used to indicate form. Since both Jiva and Jada are bereft of that Amsa called Ananda they are considered to be formless. It is asserted that this Blissful form of Divine Being is something that cannot be divined by human mind.
That form of inner controlling factor in all beings, known as "Antaryamin" or "Antahkaranah" or conscience emerges from that part or Amsa of Divinity recognised as Ananda.
The inert objects known as Jada, all living substances called Jivas and that inner controlling factor referred to as Antaryamin are Amsa of the same Supreme Spirit. Even though all the three represent the very form of Divinity but due to their material differences they are considered as three fold or "Tridha" aspects.
Emancipation or liberation (Moksha) is also a kind of distinctiveness of creation (Srusti). That is a reason why the importance of Vidya or learning is stressed upon. Vidya or Jnana denotes spiritual education and knowledge about Supreme Spirit. The abiding state of Jiva is called acquisition of form. This acquisition is gained through learning. The acquisition of knowledge of body consciousness is gained through ignorance.
Learning i.e. Vidya and ignorance i.e. Avidya are the result of a phenomenon known as manisfestation or "Avirbhava" and non-manifestation or "Tirobhava". When a Jiva gains true spiritual knowledge about its original form or swarupa it is referred as the manifestation of Vidya and disappearance of Avidya. When a Jiva will lose his identity with the Supreme Spirit and will identity with body consciousness it is called disappearance of Vidya and manifestation of Avidya.
When spiritual ignorance i.e. Avidya is eradicted by knowledge i.e. Vidya, Jiva or the individual soul is said to be liberated.
When that part of Bestitude or Anandamsa is established the status of being one with Brahman will be instantly achieved. This union is also known as a state wherein Jiva co-exists with the Divinity and is known as Sayujya.
It has been ascertained that the state of Brahma-bhava can be

























attained only when the Divine Being will desire so.
A strong feeling of love and affection towards Divinity or Bhagavan along with profound knowledge of the magnanimity or Mahatmya of Bhagavan is considered to be the form of devotion. It is asserted that no other means is capable of producing same results as devotion. Sandilya Bhakti Sutras describe that extreme attachment in Bhagavan will ultimately yield results.
When the very form Divinity will manifest before the devotee he will be treated as achieving the Phala or effect of his efforts. Sri Vallabhacharya prescribes Seva or service with ardent love for the Divinity as a means or Sadhana for the Divine Being to manifest.
Referring to the myriad manifestations of Divinity, he has stated that though this Divine Spirit assumes many forms HE is not divided and fragmented. Nor is HE different in various manifestations. HE is one, single and equal in all the myriad forms. HE remains in them in HIS entire entity, like a yogi. These myriad manifestations are known as Vibhuties of Divinity.
The Moon is one, His reflection is seen on the surface of water as a part of that original. Due to special circumstances like ripples it will appear as though there are many moons. But even in the multifarious reflections there is no difference between the "Amsa" or part of Moon and the "Amsina" or the reflected.
Some philosophers like Mayavadins maintain that Jivatma is just an "Abhasa" or resemblance or likeness of Divine Being. According to them it is also known as "Pratibimba" or a mirrored reflection of Brahman and nothing else.
Shri Vallabhacharya asserts that Sruties have provided the similie of Moon only to establish the fact of one Supreme Spirit manifesting in multiple forms of Jivas. It is not meant to aver that Jiva is a reflection of that Divinity.
Basing his arguments on Sruties and Brahma Sutras he interprets this aspect as follows. When the third ingredient i.e. "Ananda Amsa" becomes non-manifest or dormant then Jiva is stated to be just "Abhasa Yeva" or semblance only. Brahma Sutras do not intend to emphasize that
Jiva is of an illusory character of semblance.
If the doctrine of illusion is accepted it will contradict the statement of Sruties like "Dwa-Suparna" etc. There are no two views that Brahman alone manifested in the form of Jiva. But when that "Anandamsa" of Brahman remains dormant then the statehood of Jiva will materialise and is recognised as "Jivatma". And when that Amsa of Ananda will become manifest Jiva will assume the statehood of Brahman known as "Brahmatva".
Jiva consists of only two ingredients viz., "Sadamsa" and "Chidamsa". When "Sadamsa" will emerge predominent Jiva will be called "Abhasa" or semblance - otherwise known as fallacious appearance. When both the ingredients viz., "Sadamsa" and "Chidamsa" will become predominent at the same instance then Jiva will be known as "Pratibimba" or reflection. When all the three ingredients of Brahman will become prominent then Jiva will assume the statehood of the Supreme Spirit.
If Jiva is accepted as a reflection of Brahman then he will have to be treated as a witness. In those circumstances Jiva cannot be considered as the enjoyer of fruits. Because if the characteristic of enjoyment cannot be found in that which is reflcted i.e. Brahman how can it be said the same will apply to its reflection ?
When one has to accept to the theory of reflection one will be forced to concede to the fact that emancipation will be a form of annihilation of Jiva. In those circumstances what is known as a state of liberation during a life period called "Jivan Mukti" cannot be achieved.
In the state of Jivan Mukti the existence of the presiding power of Jiva will lose consciousness of his body etc., and will remain in a state of abeyance. This termination of awareness of body functions will not come as a hindrance in normal activities of body like eating etc.
Shri Vallabhacharya asserts that the Supreme Spirit is otherwise difficult to be perceived except through his 'Karya'. Hence HIS presence is proved indirectly through HIS performance. It is averred that if one has achieved the knowledge of the single Super Power known as Brahman the rest of the mysteries of the Universe can be grasped. But this single knowledge can not be obtained by uttering the Mantra "TatTvamasi", This Supreme Spirit can be known through Vedas alone. THerefore it is



























concluded that the form of that element known as "Brahma Tatva" cannot be comprehended by mere worldly arguments.
In the acqisition of spiritual knowledge meditation forms an anterior division (Poorvanga). Then the statements from Vedas will form co­operative an co-ordinating agents. And finally the Grace of Divinity will remain the foremost object.
It is asserted that even after gaining spiritual knowledge one cannot achieve Mukti, because the origins of both spiritual ignorance and knowledge will take place along with the subjugation in the same manner as it will occur in a state of wakefulness and dreams.
The only means advised to achieve Mukti is worship. For the achievement of Intimate Union (Sayuja) one has to take shelter in the worship of the Divine Being. This will lead to independent devotion. When a person embraces the path of Pusti Bhakti he will not crave even for that intimate Union with Divinity. This Pusti Bhakti is in itself the form of a result known as "Phala Rupa". Since this Bhakti is unique it is called the fifth 'Purushartha'.
It is asserted that the word "Brahman" is used because of HIS powers of abundance and due to HIS capacity to grow or flourish. Sruties describe HIM as one in whom all qualities referred here denote supernatural ones. This Supreme Spirit is non-transient, indestructible, pervasive, all powerful, independent, all knowing and devoid of all earthly attributes.
The word "Vyapaka" or pervasiveness means that which is not circumscribed by any place or region, by time or Kala and by any object or Dravya.
The Supreme Spirit is devoid of all dualism of Sajatiya - who belong to the same species called Jivas, or vijatiyas - those different species called Jada and Swagata - those who relate to one's self called Antaryamin.
This aspect of Jiva being of same lineage is obtained from Mundakopanishad. Its emergence is compared to infinite sparklings emerging from a ball of fire having the same form i.e. Chetanatva or sense perception, Nityatva or perinneal nature and other such qualities observed in Brahman



























This aspect of non-lineage or Vijatiya is derived due to its very inert uhmacteristic and non-perinneal nature.
The third aspect concerning Swagata or the quality of reaching inner most spirit known as Antaryamin, even though currently of the same form of .Sat, Chit and Ananda, but it is circumscibed by its capacity of performance known as Karya Kartrutva remains checked or restrained.
But one has to realise that the Supreme Spirit is fastened or linked In all the three aspects. HE alone converts into all the three forms. Sri VHllabhacharya advises one not to consider Jiva, Antaryamin and Jada as n form of Poorna Purushottama but should maintain an understanding of e»qual nature of descent or manisfestation in part.
Srimad Bhagavatam asserted that there is no uncertainty about the existence of Supreme Spirit. He is unparalled reality. The same Brahman, in the form of Maya and the form of Jiva, is divided as the visualiser and visualised. It also emphasied that Maya is only one of the powers of Brahman. There can be no difference between the person who weilded the power and his power.
That this Supreme Spirit is pre-eminent than "Akshara" or the immutable Brahman is obtained from the statements of Chandyogopanishad and Bhagavad gita.
When Supreme Spirit, by HIS own free will and with a desire to sport, has made HIS form of Blissfulness disappear HIS qualities like "Ajeyatva" or blemishlessness will take the form of "Jadatva" or inertness etc., and appear as such. But in HIS causative form i.e. Karana Rupa HE will not appear in the form of inertness etc.
It should be understood clearly that though the characteristics of the original cause will descend to its Karya or work but when they are present in work they will not appear in the very form they will exist in the cause or Karana.
It is coverred that the Divine Being is the inseparable cause called "Samavayi Karana" and HE alone is the instrumental cause or "Nimitta Karana" of this Universe. The inseparable connection or 'Samavaya' is treated as a form of sameness of nature known as "Tadatmya Rupa". Therefore Union is nothing but being the same. There will be no difference In substance.
























concluded that the form of that element known as "Brahma Tatva" cannot be comprehended by mere worldly arguments.
In the acqisition of spiritual knowledge meditation forms an anterior division (Poorvanga). Then the statements from Vedas will form co­operative an co-ordinating agents. And finally the Grace of Divinity will remain the foremost object.
It is asserted that even after gaining spiritual knowledge one cannot achieve Mukti, because the origins of both spiritual ignorance and knowledge will take place along with the subjugation in the same manner as it will occur in a state of wakefulness and dreams.
The only means advised to achieve Mukti is worship. For the achievement of Intimate Union (Sayuja) one has to take shelter in the worship of the Divine Being. This will lead to independent devotion. When a person embraces the path of Pusti Bhakti he will not crave even for that intimate Union with Divinity. This Pusti Bhakti is in itself the form of a result known as "Phala Rupa". Since this Bhakti is unique it is called the fifth 'Purushartha'.
It is asserted that the word "Brahman" is used because of HIS powers of abundance and due to HIS capacity to grow or flourish. Sruties describe HIM as one in whom all qualities referred here denote supernatural ones. This Supreme Spirit is non-transient, indestructible, pervasive, all powerful, independent, all knowing and devoid of all earthly attributes.
The word "Vyapaka" or pervasiveness means that which is not circumscribed by any place or region, by time or Kala and by any object or Dravya.
The Supreme Spirit is devoid of all dualism of Sajatiya - who belong to the same species called Jivas, or vijatiyas - those different species called Jada and Swagata - those who relate to one's self called Antaryamin.
This aspect of Jiva being of same lineage is obtained from Mundakopanishad. Its emergence is compared to infinite sparklings emerging from a ball of fire having the same form i.e. Chetanatva or sense perception, Nityatva or perinneal nature and other such qualities observed in Brahman.































This aspect of non-lineage or Vijatiya is derived due to its very inert uhmacteristic and non-perinneal nature.
The third aspect concerning Swagata or the quality of reaching inner most spirit known as Antaryamin, even though currently of the same form of .Sat, Chit and Ananda, but it is circumscibed by its capacity of performance known as Karya Kartrutva remains checked or restrained.
But one has to realise that the Supreme Spirit is fastened or linked In all the three aspects. HE alone converts into all the three forms. Sri VHllabhacharya advises one not to consider Jiva, Antaryamin and Jada as n form of Poorna Purushottama but should maintain an understanding of e»qual nature of descent or manisfestation in part.
Srimad Bhagavatam asserted that there is no uncertainty about the existence of Supreme Spirit. He is unparalled reality. The same Brahman, in the form of Maya and the form of Jiva, is divided as the visualiser and visualised. It also emphasied that Maya is only one of the powers of Brahman. There can be no difference between the person who weilded the power and his power.
That this Supreme Spirit is pre-eminent than "Akshara" or the immutable Brahman is obtained from the statements of Chandyogopanishad and Bhagavad gita.
When Supreme Spirit, by HIS own free will and with a desire to sport, has made HIS form of Blissfulness disappear HIS qualities like "Ajeyatva" or blemishlessness will take the form of "Jadatva" or inertness etc., and appear as such. But in HIS causative form i.e. Karana Rupa HE will not appear in the form of inertness etc.
It should be understood clearly that though the characteristics of the original cause will descend to its Karya or work but when they are present in work they will not appear in the very form they will exist in the cause or Karana.
It is coverred that the Divine Being is the inseparable cause called "Samavayi Karana" and HE alone is the instrumental cause or "Nimitta Karana" of this Universe. The inseparable connection or 'Samavaya' is treated as a form of sameness of nature known as "Tadatmya Rupa". Therefore Union is nothing but being the same. There will be no difference In substance.



















The proof to the fact that Supreme Spirit is the instrumental cause is obtained from the statements of Taitteriya Upanishad which proclaims that from this Parama Atman the whole universe is produced.
It is described in Sruties that the purpose of creating this Universe is the desire of the Divine Being to sport. This Divinity sports sometimes within HIMSELF alone and sometimes, with pleasure, sports in the world. When HE will sport within HIMSELF HE will withdraw the world in HIMSELF. When HE will sport in the world HE will expand the Universe.
Thus in the first instance this world will be dissolved in Divinity and in the second instance this world will manifest from HIM.
Sruties describe another aspect of Brahman. Eventhough HE remains within every substance HE will not contact or touch them. He regards all substances as HIS constituent element or "Sarira" and enters those substances and become vivid. But the physical element will not have the cognizance of it. He remains in all the substances in the form of Antaryamin but they will not realise HIM residing in them.
The dual or "Dvaita" aspect of Brahman has been prohibited by Sruties, asserting that "Eka Meva Advitiyam", meaning that HE alone is one and single and without parallel. It is further emphasised that when HE is described as all pervading the singleness of Brahman is indicated. When it is stated that HE has endless forms it points out to HIS manifold nature. Though it appears that these qualities are of contradictory nature but this oneness and manifoldness are to be found in one and same Divinity.
When the Divine Being will descend from HIS celestial abode HE is said to have taken incarnation or "Avatara". Then like fire in an iron ball, the Blissfulness will manifest outside. What will be visible to naked eye is this form alone. The Divine Being can be perused only when HE will desire so and that too in HIS Blissful form.
When pure elementary "Satva" is reflected in the place of Beatitude the latter will take the hue of dark blue shade of the former. This happens because the pure "Satva" bears the colour of blueness like that of a ladden cloud. It is stated that this transformation takes place through the free will of the Divine Being.
It is asserted that the perception of vision of this Divinity could be

























harl in two ways. One mode is, when the Divine Being has desired to nppear before some particular person HE will manifest before him. The Hficond mode is when HE desires to appear before all. When the Divinity rlHSires that all people can have an audience of HIM, HE will take an Ineayrnation.
In Bhagavad Gita, Krishna has asserted that HE is the cause behind the creation and that HE is responsible for the annihilation of the world. The question of Vaishamya and Naighrunya (being discriminating and cruel) will not arise as HE himself has manifested in the form of creation i.e. Srusti.
From the evidence available from Sruties and other Sastras it can be observed that Jivas, Brahma and other celestial beings, Purusha, Prakriti, Kala and others are dependent on some other force. As such these cannot be called as "Karta". Brahman alone should be considered as "Karta". Brahman alone should be considered as "Karta" or the author of this world because HE alone is independent or "Swatantra".
Smruties and Puranas use the word "Saguna" with reference to Divinity. This is done because HIS manifestations are endowed with qualities. He is represented as "Saguna" so that one can comprehend the nature of Divinity. These altributes are said to be the cause behind creation etc. Unless attributes are presided over by what is known as an element of awareness (Chetana Tatva) the work of creation cannot be performed. That is why Brahma, Siva and other celestial beings are considered as having qualities.
Since the Supreme Spirit is the chief Karta HE cannot be considered to have endowed with attributes. HE is also the author of Gunas.
According to Srimad Bhagavatam the whole perceivable world and HE who looks at it are one and same. There is no distinction between this world, Jiva and Brahman. A part of HIM is called Prakruti or Nature. He assumes the forms of 'Karya" and 'Karana'. The other part which has the form of Jnana is called "Purusha".
Chandogyopanishad describes three sources of germination viz., those originating from egos of "Andaja", those originating from living beings or "Jivaja" and those sprouting out of seeds or "Udbhija" and aclclfid that all these represented the Divine Being. Bhagavad Gita also




























reiterated that Brahman is the source (Beeja) of all beings and that HE is ancient.
The philosophers of Maya Vada used the meaning of the word Maya as of a form of Avidya. This interpretation does not reach the correct depth of the meaning. Their intentions are contrary to truth and are not supported by Sruties. Their contention that this Universe is 'Mithya' or unreal is not supported by Kenopanishad. It is argued by them that some Sruties represented this world as illusory and like the experiences one will feel in dreams. But it is said that this is not the proper interpretation because in all those statements there is no reference to any aspect of dreams.
The Mayavadins attempt to establish a form of 'Bondage' or Bandhana and 'Liberation' or Moksha which exist due to abundance of ignorance. This Avidya possesses a form of impurity. This impurity is enveloped by a curtain. Owing to this obscuring spiritual ignorance the soul has turned itself outward and began to understand that it belongs to the world. In these circumstances the soul is said to have been eclipsed by bondage.
The Mayavadins assert that the liberation of soul can take place through the initiation of the mantra "Tat Tvamasi", obtained through a preceptor. This they illustrate by a maxim of remembering the necklace round the neck which has been forgotten, meaning that liberation is attained by becoming aware of one's own form or swarupa.
Sri Vallabhacharya states that when a person will consider this world as unreal he will be denying the Divine Being as its cause, creator, controller or even as a sovereign etc. Thus the very greatness of Divinity will be annulled.
He further states that if it is accepted that this world is not real then the aspect of emancipation will be lost like an elephant in a dream.
Puranas are like a friend. They do attempt to explain, in a worldly manner, by illustrating that this world is illusory. But the purpose of such allusions is not to doctrinise the illusory character of the world. The intention behind it is to make people avoid agony and to bring about changes of disposition.
It is averred by Sri Vallabhacharya that this world in its very form
























is real. When one will attain the highest knowledge, the whole and unbroken, non-dualistic nature of Brahman, with all its inexplicable secrets, will appear as nothing but that Brahman. In the final stage of understanding no congnizance of difference will remain.
Upanishads describe the nondualistic character of Brahman as "Sakhanda" or fragmented and "Akhanda" or in the form of whole. In both the forms of contention the status of the world will remain uncurtailed.
Bhagavad Gita has enumerated the three-fold nature (Trirupakata) of Divinity with difference demarcated as 'Perishable' or 'Kshara', 'Indesctructrible' or 'Immutable' or 'Akshara' and the pre-eminent person or 'Purushottama'.
The first of its form is known as "Purushottama". HE is none other than Shri Krishna, the presiding deity or what is known as Adhi-Deivika Rupa. The second is known as Immutable form called Akshara. This is the spiritual form of Divinity and is recognised as Adhyatmika Rupa. The third is called the World the form of Divinity is established in all the three fold aspects and remains 'one and same.
To a person who has the direct realisation of the fragmented form of non-dualism, the multifarious objects of this world will appear real. Through Sastras he will acquire the knowledge of their being composed of the nature of Brahman.
In a similar way a wise man having the perception of Brahman, when he will attain the Supreme knowledge of the non-fragmented or complete non-dualism, even though he will perceive various forms of Brahman he will not give importance to the other forms.
Referring to the theory of dualism or "Dwaita" Shri Vallabhacharya states that simply because the distinction between material objects is visible to common persons it is not proper to accept the difference as a sublime truth. Direct perceptions and conjectures can lead to erroneous conclusions.
Eventhough in the doctrine of dualism the true status of the Universe is conceded and in a way this doctrine appears to have become a means of promulgating devotion, it must be said against it that it does not receive support from Vedas.
























The Sankhya theory is one in which the Divinity is contended as consisting of twenty eight elements.
At the beginning of creation a proper and authentic estimation of value of all objects originated at that time, and its appropriate discrimination is done in the doctrine of Brahmavada. Therefore what is known as Sankhya theory will become a part of that principal doctrine. Samkhya doctrine describes ahout 'Prakruti' and 'mahat' - the great principles of intellect distinguished from 'Manas' or mind - and other elements in a form that is not acceptable to Vedas.
Of the various contentions of Yoga there is only one known as "Sa Beeja Yoga" which advocates meditation upon the Divine Being and is honoured. There is another Yoga called "Nirbeeja Yoga" - a mode of Yoga which helps as a means in acquiring knowledge of the form of Jiva. Only that Yoga which will become a means in assisting meditation upon the Divinity will be treated as authentic.
It is finally advised by Sri Vallabhacharya that a devotee, following the five fold methods of worship i.e., adopting "Vairagya" or asceticism, "Jnana" or spiritual knowledge, "Yoga" or abstract meditation, "Prema" or ardent love and "Tapa" or religious austerities will attain liberation.
Without the absence of worldly desires it will not be possible to achieve devotion. This immense emotion known as "Bhagavad-Avesha" is an essential element to obtain fruits of worship. The correct understanding of the true nature of Divine Being is called spiritual knowledge. Without knowledge convictions cannot be formed. In the absence of belief one cannot make progress.
Yoga has been accepted as an important link in attainment of devotion. Yoga helps in controlling the behaviour patterns of understanding. Where mind remains unsteady how can one concentrate upon the devotion towards Divinity.
In the absence of ardent love or intense sentiments of affections it is not possible to experience that 'Bhava' known as "Rasa".
Without the help of proper practices of religious austerities the body and organs of senses will remain imperfect. Atonement of body and organs of senses will take place by undergoing penances.

























Shri Vallabhacharya asserts that it is hard to attain a combination of all the five divisions of devotion. According to his any one of the modes will be sufficient to achieve the desired effects. But he insists that one has to maintain a firm determination when following that mode of worship. There is a mention of only one kind of Laya or annihilation in Sruties. But Puranas mention about three fold Laya.
The first of them is referred as a result of the work of Kala and this Laya is considered as permanent or Nitya Laya. The second is the result of natural calamities like fire or flood and has relation to "Dravya" or substances. This is called Naimittika or instrumental Laya. The third is known as natural or Prakrutik Laya and is the result of the characteristics (Guna) of Dravya.
All the objects change their forms at every stage. From the changing facets it is evident that the great redeemer i.e. Kala has brought about changes. Hence they will take their origin at one moment and will be destroyed at the other.
At the termination of one 'Kalpa' the end of the world will be for the same period as that of the Kalpa. This has been described as a night for Brahman. At that time all the three worlds will be considered to have been dissolved. It is said that then deluge will take place.
Shri Vallabhacharya adds that when the Divinity i.e. Shri Krishna will withdraw HIMSELF sportingly, what will result in the form of annihilation will be for the munificience of all and this is known as Prakrutik Laya. The fourth i.e. "Atyantika Laya" is not different from any of the three kinds already described. It has no independent existence. When the direct congnition of the feelings of Mamata and Ahamta will be destroyed it will be considered that a termination of sensuous enjoyments has taken place.
Referring to the "Adhikaries" or claimants of Devotion, Sri Vallabhacharya state? that devotee will be called a pr-elminent claiment who will perform Seva of Sri Hari according to the doctrine of Brahmavada, harnessed with true knowledge of Brahman and with a firm exhibition of love and adopting the medium of listening etc.
When a devotee will follow the path of devotion without the


























sentiment of ardent love he will be known as medium claiment. Even when that part of devotion called knowledge is lacking and still if a devotee will pursue worship he will be called a medium claiment.
But when a person is devoid of any knowledge and his love for Divinity is not in abundance then he will be called a primary or mean (Hina) claimant.
It is further asserted that in the absence of both ardent love and knowledge if a person will worship the Divinity through the means of listening etc., then he will have all his sins destroyed by such listening. It is assured that when a person, having combined religious austerities (Tapa) and asetism (Vairagya) will offer worship through the means of listening etc., then as a consequence of that devotion he will achieve knowledge.
Very often people worship with a view to obtain results. Because people can hope to achieve the desired results from Divinity. He has the power to grant both the worldly results as well as other worldly results. Sruties attribute absolute sovereignty to the Divine Being. No one else has this capacity to grant everything.
It is quite evident from the brief elucidation of the principles of Sudha Advaita that Sri Vallabha Acharya lays emphasis, first on acquiring correct spiritual knowledge, then on gaining knowledge of the true form of the Supreme Spirit, develop intense love towards that Paramatman known as Shri Krishna and render concentrated Seva without even aspiring for the ultimate 'Phala'. And that those ultimate results can be achieved only when that Supreme Spirit desires so.
Even though Sri Vallabhacharya had propounded a sound and deep heritage of philosophical thinking on the lines of his predecessor Acharyas, he laid emphasis on the particular mode of devotion which he called "Sudha Advaita Pusti Bhakti". This particular path of devotion is also known as "Anugraha Marga", because according to his doctrine can hope to obtain that 'Sayujya MuktP only when Shri Krishna Graces him with HIS munificiance. In Vallabha Sampradaya this Pusti Bhakti is considered as unique because it is independent and is in itself both the means and effect - what is known as 'Phala Rupa'.





























But for the advent of Sri Vallabhacharya, the controversies and contradictions of Upanishads, Brahma Sutras and other such Sastras would never have been clarified. It is the profound knowledge and razor shap reasoning of Sri Vallabhacharya which has probed deep into the different representations of Sastras and brougnt out the true aspects to the form.
He is not satisfied by establishing a bold and new system. According to him higher knowledge of God-realisation is not going to help the ordinary man. There should be something simple at the same time result oriented because the chief aim of all religious thinkers is to produce the means to be common man by which he can achieve ultimate results. In order to fill this religious vacuum he has evaluated his beautiful Bhakti system which is simple to grasp and easy to follow and effective.
Sri Vallabhacharya has appeared on the eastern horizon, so to speak, and blazed the skies with his brilliance and even as he disappeared in the infinite he left as everlasting impact on mankind with the glow of his lifting spirit. It is alleged that after completing his mission Sri Vallabhacharya has renounced this world and entered Jala-samadhi in River Ganga at Hanuman Ghat, Varanasi. There as he lost in deep meditation on the Supreme Spirit the onlookers had seen burning flame emerging from the body and rasing towards sky and finally disappearing in the infinite. The followers of Sri Vallabhacharya believe that in order to confirm to the principles of nature he has foresaken his body and disappeared but he is eternally in the form of Lila or sport with the Supreme Spirit.



































sentiment of ardent love he will be known as medium claiment. Even when that part of devotion called knowledge is lacking and still if a devotee will pursue worship he will be called a medium claiment.
But when a person is devoid of any knowledge and his love for Divinity is not in abundance then he will be called a primary or mean (Hina) claimant.
It is further asserted that in the absence of both ardent love and knowledge if a person will worship the Divinity through the means of listening etc., then he will have all his sins destroyed by such listening. It is assured that when a person, having combined religious austerities (Tapa) and asetism (Vairagya) will offer worship through the means of listening etc., then as a consequence of that devotion he will achieve knowledge.
Very often people worship with a view to obtain results. Because people can hope to achieve the desired results from Divinity. He has the power to grant both the worldly results as well as other worldly results. Sruties attribute absolute sovereignty to the Divine Being. No one else has this capacity to grant everything.
It is quite evident from the brief elucidation of the principles of Sudha Advaita that Sri Vallabha Acharya lays emphasis, first on acquiring correct spiritual knowledge, then on gaining knowledge of the true form of the Supreme Spirit, develop intense love towards that Paramatman known as Shri Krishna and render concentrated Seva without even aspiring for the ultimate 'Phala'. And that those ultimate results can be achieved only when that Supreme Spirit desires so.
Even though Sri Vallabhacharya had propounded a sound and deep heritage of philosophical thinking on the lines of his predecessor Acharyas, he laid emphasis on the particular mode of devotion which he called "Sudha Advaita Pusti Bhakti". This particular path of devotion is also known as "Anugraha Marga", because according to his doctrine can hope to obtain that 'Sayujya MuktP only when Shri Krishna Graces him with HIS munificiance. In Vallabha Sampradaya this Pusti Bhakti is considered as unique because it is independent and is in itself both the means and effect - what is known as 'Phala Rupa'.





























But for the advent of Sri Vallabhacharya, the controversies and contradictions of Upanishads, Brahma Sutras and other such Sastras would never have been clarified. It is the profound knowledge and razor shap reasoning of Sri Vallabhacharya which has probed deep into the different representations of Sastras and brougnt out the true aspects to the form.
He is not satisfied by establishing a bold and new system. According to him higher knowledge of God-realisation is not going to help the ordinary man. There should be something simple at the same time result oriented because the chief aim of all religious thinkers is to produce the means to be common man by which he can achieve ultimate results. In order to fill this religious vacuum he has evaluated his beautiful Bhakti system which is simple to grasp and easy to follow and effective.
Sri Vallabhacharya has appeared on the eastern horizon, so to speak, and blazed the skies with his brilliance and even as he disappeared in the infinite he left as everlasting impact on mankind with the glow of his lifting spirit. It is alleged that after completing his mission Sri Vallabhacharya has renounced this world and entered Jala-samadhi in River Ganga at Hanuman Ghat, Varanasi. There as he lost in deep meditation on the Supreme Spirit the onlookers had seen burning flame emerging from the body and rasing towards sky and finally disappearing in the infinite. The followers of Sri Vallabhacharya believe that in order to confirm to the principles of nature he has foresaken his body and disappeared but he is eternally in the form of Lila or sport with the Supreme Spirit.

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